Carcharhiniformes

(Ground Sharks)

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The order of the ground sharks consists of 8 families with more than 259 species. More than half of all known shark species are ground sharks. This order also represents the most typical sharks. Their distinguishing features are a nicitating membrane (a flap of skin that functions as a third eye lid), 2 dorsal fins, an anal fin and five gill slits. Most of these sharks are found in tropical and temperate waters.

Ground sharks possess all forms of reproduction such as oviparity, aplacental viviparity (ovoviviparity) and viviparity.

 

Families of Carcharhiniformes


 
Scyliorhinidae
      (Catsharks)
  • 16 generea
  • 81 species
Proscylliidae
      (Finback Catsharks)
  • 4 generea
  • 4 species
Pseudotriakidae
      (False Catsharks)
  • 1 generea
  • 2 species
Leptochariidae
      (Barbelled Houndsharks)
  • 1 generea
  • 1 species
Triakidae
      (Houndsharks)
  • 9 generea
  • 25 species
Hemigaleidae
      (Weasel Sharks)
  • 4 generea
  • 4 species
Carcharhinidae
      (Requiem Sharks)
  • 12 generea
  • 50 species
Sphyrnidae
      (Bonnethead Sharks)
  • 2 generea
  • 9 species
 
  1. Carcharhiniformes Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae)

  2. The Genera of Catsharks
    • Apristurus


      • Atlantic ghost catshark (Apristurus atlanticus)
      • Icelandic catshark (Apristurus laurussonii)
      • Japanese catshark (Apristurus japonicus)
      • Largenose catshark (Apristurus nasutus)
      • Longfin catshark (Apristurus herklotsi)
      • Longhead catshark (Apristurus longicephalus)
      • Longnose catshark (Apristurus kampae)
      • Madeira catshark (Apristurus maderensis)
      • New catshark species (Apristurus internatus)
      • Panama ghost catshark (Apristurus stenseni)
      • Pinocchio catshark (Apristurus sp. nov. G)
      • Roughskin catshark (Apristurus sp. nov. D)
      • Smallbelly catshark (Apristurus indicus)
      • Smalldorsal catshark (Apristurus micropterygeus)
      • Smalleye catshark (Apristurus microps)
      • Smallfin catshark (Apristurus parvipinnis)
      • South China catshark (Apristurus sinensis)
      • Spongehead catshark (Apristurus spongiceps)
      • Stout catshark (Apristurus fedorovi)
      • White ghost catshark (Apristurus aphyodes)
      • Whitish catshark (Apristurus albisoma)

    • Asymbolus


      • Australian spotted catshark (Asymbolus analis)
      • Blotched catshark (Asymbolus funebris)

    • Atelomycterus


      • Coral catshark (Atelomycterus marmoratus)

    • Aulohalaelurus


      • New Caledonia catshark (Aulohalaelurus kanakorum)
      • Blackspotted catshark (Aulohalaelurus labiosus)

    • Cephaloscyllium


      • Reticulate Swell shark (Cephaloscyllium fasciatum)
      • Draughtboard shark (Cephaloscyllium isabellum)
      • Australian swellshark (Cephaloscyllium laticeps)
      • Whitefinned swellshark (Cephaloscyllium nascione)
      • Draughtboard shark (Cephaloscyllium sp. nov. A)
      • Saddled Swell shark (Cephaloscyllium sp. nov. B)
      • Northern Draughtboard shark (Cephaloscyllium sp. nov. C)
      • Narrowbar Swell shark (Cephaloscyllium sp. nov. D)
      • Speckled Swell shark (Cephaloscyllium sp. nov. E)
      • Swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum)
      • Balloon shark (Cephaloscyllium sufflans)

    • Cephalurus


      • Lollipop catshark (Cephalurus cephalus)

    • Galeus


      • Australian sawtail catshark (Galeus boardmani)
      • Slender sawtail shark (Galeus gracilis)
      • Blackmouth catshark (Galeus melastomus)
      • Southern sawtail catshark (Galeus mincaronei)
      • Northern sawtail shark (Galeus sp. nov. B)
      • African sawtail catshark (Galeus polli)
      • Antilles Catshark (Galeus antillensis)
      • Atlantic Sawtail Catshark (Galeus atlanticus)

    • Halaelurus


      • Speckled catshark (Halaelurus boesemani)
      • Banded catshark (Halaelurus lineatus)
      • Tiger catshark (Halaelurus natalensis)
      • Arabian catshark (Halaelurus alcockii)
      • Bristly catshark (Halaelurus hispidus)

    • Haploblepharus


      • Puffadder shyshark (Haploblepharus edwardsii)
      • Brown shyshark (Haploblepharus fuscus)

    • Holohalaelurus


      • African spotted catshark (Holohalaelurus punctatus)
      • Izak catshark (Holohalaelurus regani)

    • Parmaturus


      • Campeche catshark (Parmaturus campechiensis)
      • McMillan's catshark (Parmaturus macmillani)
      • Short-tail shark (Parmaturus sp. nov. A)

    • Pentanchus


      • Onefin catshark (Pentanchus profundicolus)

    • Poroderma


      • Pyjama shark (Poroderma africanum)

    • Schroederichthyes


      • Narrowtail catshark (Schroederichthyes maculatus)
      • Slender catshark (Schroederichthyes tenuis)

    • Scyliorhinus


      • Polkadot catshark (Scyliorhinus besnardi)
      • Small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula)
      • Dogfish (Scyliorhinus capensis)
      • Freckled catshark (Scyliorhinus haeckelii)
      • Whitesaddled catshark (Scyliorhinus hesperius)
      • Chain catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer)
      • New catshark species (Scyliorhinus sp. nov.)
      • Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellatus)
      • Cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame)

  3. Carcharhiniformes Finback catsharks (Proscylliidae)

  4. The Genera of Finback Catsharks
    • Ctenacis


      • Harlequin catshark (Ctenacis fehlmanni)

    • Eridacnis


      • Cuban ribbontail catshark (Eridacnis barbouri)
      • African ribbontail catshark (Eridacnis sinuans)

    • Gollum


      • Slender smooth-hound (Gollum attenuatus)

    • Proscyllium


      • Graceful catshark (Proscyllium habereri)

  5. Carcharhiniformes False Catsharks (Pseudotriakidae)

  6. The Genera of False Catsharks
    • Pseudotriakis


      • False catshark (Pseudotriakis microdon)


  7. Carcharhiniformes Barbelled Houndsharks (Leptochariidae)

  8. The Genera of Barbelled Houndsharks
    • Leptocharias


      • Barbeled houndshark (Leptocharias smithii)


  9. Carcharhiniformes Houndsharks (Triakidae)

  10. The Genera of Houndsharks
    • Furgaleus


      • Whiskery shark (Furgaleus macki)

    • Galeorhinus


      • Tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus)

    • Gogolia


      • Sailback houndshark (Gogolia filewoodi)

    • Hemitriakis


      • Darksnout hound shark (Hemitriakis abdita)
      • Japanese topeshark (Hemitriakis japanica)
      • Whitefin topeshark (Hemitriakis leucoperiptera)

    • Hypogaleus


      • Lesser soupfin shark (Hypogaleus hyugaensis)

    • Iago


      • Bigeye houndshark (Iago omanensis)

    • Mustelus


      • Gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus)
      • Grey smooth-hound (Mustelus californicus)
      • Dusky smoothhound (Mustelus canis)
      • Sharptooth smoothhound (Mustelus dorsalis)
      • Striped dogfish (Mustelus fasciatus)
      • Brown Smoothhound (Mustelus henlei)
      • Sicklefin smooth-hound (Mustelus lunulatus)
      • Speckled smooth-hound (Mustelus mento)
      • Arabian smooth-hound (Mustelus mosis)

    • Scylliogaleus


      • Flapnose houndshark (Scylliogaleus quecketti)

    • Triakis


      • Sharpfin houndshark (Triakis acutipinna)
      • Spotted houndshark (Triakis maculata)
      • Spotted gully shark (Triakis megalopterus)
      • Banded houndshark (Triakis scyllium)
      • Leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata)

  11. Carcharhiniformes Weasel Sharks (Hemigaleidae)

  12. The Genera of Weasel Sharks
    • Chaenogaleus


      • Hooktooth shark (Chaenogaleus macrostoma)

    • Hemigaleus


      • Sicklefin weasel shark (Hemigaleus microstoma)

    • Hemipristis


      • Snaggletooth shark (Hemipristis elongatus)

    • Paragaleus


      • Atlantic weasel shark (Paragaleus pectoralis)

  13. Carcharhiniformes Requiem Sharks (Carcharhinidae)

  14. The Genera of Requiem Sharks
    • Carcharhinus


      • Blacknose shark (Carcharhinus acronotus)
      • Silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus)
      • Bignose shark (Carcharhinus altimus)
      • Graceful shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides)
      • Gray reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)
      • Pigeye shark (Carcharhinus amboinensis)
      • Borneo shark (Carcharhinus borneensis)
      • Copper shark (Carcharhinus brachyurus)
      • Spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna)
      • Nervous shark (Carcharhinus cautus)
      • Whitecheek shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri)
      • Silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis)
      • Creek whaler (Carcharhinus fitzroyensis)
      • Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis)
      • Pondicherry shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon)
      • Finetooth shark (Carcharhinus isodon)
      • Smoothtooth Blacktip (Carcharhinus leiodon)
      • Bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas)
      • Blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus)
      • Oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus)
      • Hardnose shark (Carcharhinus macloti)
      • Blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus)
      • Dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus)
      • Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi)
      • Sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)
      • Smalltail shark (Carcharhinus porosus)
      • Blackspot shark (Carcharhinus sealai)
      • Night shark (Carcharhinus signatus)
      • Spot-tail shark (Carcharhinus sorrah)
      • Australian blacktip shark (Carcharhinus tilstoni)
      • Blacktail reef shark (Carcharhinus wheeleri)

    • Galeocerdo


      • Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)

    • Glyphis


      • Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus)
      • Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis)
      • Bizant river shark (Glyphis sp. nov. A)
      • New Guinea River shark (Glyphis sp. nov. C)

    • Isogomphodon


      • Daggernose shark (Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus)

    • Lamiopsis


      • Broadfin shark (Lamiopsis temmincki)

    • Loxodon


      • Sliteye shark (Loxodon macrorhinus)

    • Nasolamia


      • Whitenose shark (Nasolamia velox)

    • Negaprion


      • Sicklefin lemon shark (Negaprion acutidens)
      • Lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

    • Prionace


      • Blue shark (Prionace glauca)

    • Rhizoprionodon


      • Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii)
      • Caribbean sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon porosus)
      • Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae)

    • Scoliodon


      • Spadenose shark (Scoliodon laticaudus)

    • Triaenodon


      • Whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus)

  15. Carcharhiniformes Bonnethead Sharks (Sphyrnidae)

  16. The Genera of Bonnethead Sharks
    • Eusphyra


      • Winghead shark (Eusphyra blochii)

    • Sphyrna


      • Crown shark (Sphyrna corona)
      • Whitefin hammerhead (Sphyrna couardi)
      • Scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)
      • Scoophead (Sphyrna media)
      • Great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran)
      • Bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo)
      • Smalleye hammerhead (Sphyrna tudes)
      • Smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena)

            
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